Interface journalist | Chen Zhenfang
In 2022,ChinaThe number of graduate students studying has reached 3.65 million, ranking second in the world in total scale..During the ten years from 2012 to 2022,The proportion of professional degrees awarded increased from 32.29% to 56.4%.
On December 19th, the Ministry of Education held."Opinions on Further Promoting the Development of Classification of Academic Degree and Professional Degree Postgraduate Education" (hereinafter referred to as "Opinions")Press conference to disclose the above data.
Department of Degree Management and Postgraduate Education, Ministry of EducationPoint out: "At present, the pattern of classified development of academic degree and professional degree graduate education has basically taken shape, and a system with China characteristics and coordinated development of two types and three degrees has been initially established.. "
In 1978,ChinaPostgraduate enrollment resumed. In 1980, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) promulgated the Regulations on Academic Degrees and established the academic degree system. It has been more than 40 years since then. In 1990,ChinaBegan to implement the professional degree education system.
in recent years, studyNumber of specialized studentsgraduallycatch up with and surpassXueshuo,Two types of talentshowThe topic of cultivation alsotriggereducational circlesAnd societyattach importance to.
Take graduate students in Tsinghua University as an example, academic degrees and professional degrees account for 55% and 45% respectively. Among them, master students are mainly professional degrees, accounting for more than 70%, while doctoral students are just the opposite, with academic degrees as the mainstream, accounting for 87%.
How to form a classified development pattern of graduate education, improve the setting of disciplines and specialties, and pay equal attention to two types of degree education have become the focus of this meeting.
The Catalogue of Postgraduate Education Disciplines released in 2022 (hereinafter referred to as the Catalogue) shows that changing the previous catalogue of professional degree categories is the presentation method of the schedule of the discipline catalogue, and integrating the first-level disciplines and professional degree categories with similar main knowledge bases into the corresponding disciplines, highlighting the equal importance of training two types of talents.
The Catalogue further enriched the categories of professional degrees, and the number increased from 47 to 67.,The number of doctoral authorization points for academic degrees has doubled compared with ten years ago..
Among them,The total number of professional degree authorization points has increased from 37.6% to 44.2% ten years ago, and the number of doctoral degree authorization points has tripled..
“The goal is that by 2027, the development of two types of degree classification will achieve pattern changes, the governance system of degree and postgraduate education will continue to improve, and the governance capacity will be significantly improved.”《Opinions "Point out.
First of all,Systematically promote the development of academic degree and professional degree classification.
Second, we mustIt is clear that both academic degree and professional degree graduate education are important ways for the country to cultivate high-level innovative talents, and the two types of degrees are equally important, and training units should pay equal attention to them.
finally,Distinguish the key layout direction of the two types of degree programs, adhere to the high starting point layout of academic degrees, and focus on the layout of doctoral degree authorization points to vigorously support the original innovation..
Professional degrees adhere to the demand-oriented, new master’s degree awarding units only carry out professional degree postgraduate education in principle, and the new master’s degree authorization points are mainly professional degree authorization points..
《idea》stillpoint out：In the fields with both academic degrees and professional degrees, emphasis should be placed on the distribution of professional degree authorization points to fully support the industry and regional development.
The meeting also stressed that it is necessaryStrengthen the differentiated requirements of positioning, standards, enrollment, training, evaluation and teachers.Especially inIn the enrollment stage, we distinguish the key aspects of the two types of students’ enrollment, and emphasize the participation of industry and enterprise experts in professional degree enrollment.